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Hubbell Galvanizing

QUESTION: How large of a piece can we galvanize? ANSWER: Our kettle is 5 feet wide, 46 feet long and 10 feet deep. Our kettle is large enough to handle just about any piece of metal. However, our process tanks are 42’6 in length by 6’6 in depth and 4’7 in width, if close to these dimensions please call and let us know! Q: Can I paint right over the galvanized coating? If so, what procedure should be followed? A: Galvanized coatings can be easily and effectively painted, not only for aesthetics but also to extend the structure’s service life. The age and extent of weathering of the galvanized coating dictate the extent of surface preparation required to produce a quality paint system over galvanized steel. ASTM D 6386, Practice for Preparation of Zinc (Hot-Dip Galvanized) Coated Iron and Steel Product and Hardware Surfaces for Painting, should be consulted for suggested surface preparation methods for galvanized coatings of varying ages. You can also consider powder coating, which requires less maintenance than paint. Q: I’m interested in specifying hot-dip galvanizing for reinforcing steel. Are there any concerns with fabricating rebar after galvanizing? A: Rebar is commonly fabricated after galvanizing. In order to minimize the possibility for coating damage, avoid bending the rebar more than eight times its radius. ASTM A 767, Specification for Zinc-Coated (Galvanized) Steel Bars for Concrete Reinforcement, has a table that provides maximum bend diameters for various-sized rebar. Q: What if the article to be galvanized is larger than the dimensions of the galvanizer’s kettle? Can it still be galvanized? A: Galvanizers can progressively dip such a fabrication. They dip one half in the molten zinc bath, remove it, turn it around or over and immerse the other half in the zinc. This method is often erroneously referred to as “double dipping.” Q: Why do galvanized steel appearances differ from project to project and is there any difference in the corrosion protection offered by the different appearing coatings? A: The steel chemistry is the primary determinant of galvanized coating thickness and appearance. Continuously cast steel produced by the steel companies has a wide variety of chemistries, thus the different coating appearances. Q: What causes wet storage stain and how can it be prevented? A: Zinc on newly galvanized steel is very reactive and wants to form zinc oxide and zinc hydroxide corrosion products that eventually become the stable zinc carbonate. When galvanized steel is tightly stacked or stored in wet boxes that don’t allow for free flowing air, the zinc forms excessive layers of zinc hydroxide, otherwise known as wet storage stain. Most wet storage stain can be easily removed with a cleaner or nylon brush. To prevent wet storage stain, store galvanized steel indoors or block it so that there is ample free flowing air between each galvanized article. Q: How long can I expect my galvanized steel project to last in service? A: It is not uncommon for hot-dip galvanized steel to last more than 70 years under certain conditions. To get a good idea of how long your project will last, see the service-life chart. Q: What is “cold” galvanizing? A: There is no such thing as cold galvanizing. The term is often used in reference to painting with zinc-rich paint. Galvanizing by definition means a metallurgical reaction between zinc and iron to create a bond between the zinc and the steel of approximately 3,600 psi. There is no such reaction when zinc-rich paints are applied and the bond strength is only several hundred psi. Q: Are all zinc-coated systems the same as hot-dip galvanizing? A: There are several ways to apply zinc to steel but none offers the protection of HDG. Metallizing is an expensive process in which zinc in wire or powder form is sprayed onto the steel. Because the zinc is sprayed onto the steel instead of migrating into the steel like HDG, it only provides barrier and limited cathodic protection. Zinc-rich Paint is a paint that contains up to 78 percent zinc by weight and is one of the approved repair methods for HDG in ASTM A780, the repair specification for HDG. However, as with most paint coatings, the quality of the application is a major factor in determining the long-term performance. Consideration must be given to the initial steel surface condition (is it new, rusty or contaminated?), proper surface preparation, weather conditions (properly controlled temperature and humidity), the skill of the painter, the curing process and handling. Continuous Galvanizing is typically used for very thin sheet products. Coils of steel sheet metal are fed as ribbon through a molten metal bath where it reacts to leave a protective surface coating. It has similar properties to hot-dip galvanizing, but the coating is thin since one of the factors affecting how much zinc will bond to the steel is the thickness. Electroplate Galvanizing is the process whereby zinc is electrochemically applied to the steel. The coating thickness is very thin. Q: What type of corrosion protection does HDG provide? A: HDG Offers Three Types of Protection Against Corrosion BARRIER: The four-layer galvanized coating provides superior barrier protection to prevent corrosion. The harder alloy layers mean the coating is very difficult to compromise. CATHODIC: The electrochemical relationship between zinc and steel in the presence of an electrolyte, like moisture, means that if the galvanized coating is ever compromised down to the bare steel that the electrons in the zinc will “sacrifice” themselves to prevent corrosion. A “flash” rust will occur on the surface. But then the corrosion stops. Over time zinc from the top layer will flow into a cut up to ¼-inch in the coating to “heal” it. ZINC PATINA: The zinc patina is a hard, thin film that forms on the galvanized coating when it reacts with the oxygen, moisture and carbon dioxide in the air. The zinc patina acts a barrier for the galvanized coating and must wear off before the galvanized coating can begin to wear. Q: Why is HDG superior to paint for corrosion protection? A: Although the paint industry has made great improvements in paint systems HDG is still superior to paint for corrosion protection providing decades not just for years. Here’s why: HDG is not just a coating like paint. HDG bonds zinc to the steel at the molecular level. In addition to the metallurgical bond, HDG provides two other types of protection – Cathodic Protection and the Zinc Patina. Paint does not provide these extra protections. Despite improvements in paint in recent years the most serious drawback of paint systems is that if the coating is damaged and bare steel is exposed it will immediately begin to corrode. As the rust increases, it spreads under the remaining paint coating and separates it from the steel. That causes flaking and peeling. As the paint peels, more steel is exposed and the corrosion accelerates. Repair to paint can be expensive, difficult to make, hard to remove the rust from the surface and harder still to verify that the surface was prepped and painted properly for the new paint to stick. Q: How does the cost of hot-dip galvanizing compare to other corrosion protection systems, such as paints? A: When compared with paint systems, hot-dip galvanizing after fabrication has comparable initial application costs and, almost always lower life-cycle costs. In fact, the lower life-cycle costs of a hot-dip galvanized project make galvanizing the smart choice for today and tomorrow. Q: What are the specifications governing hot-dip galvanized steel? A: Structural steel (plate, wide-flange beams, angles, channels, pipe, tubing) are galvanized to ASTM A 123/A 123M. Fasteners and small parts that fit into a centrifuging basket are galvanized to ASTM A 153/A 153M. Reinforcing steel is galvanized to ASTM A 767/A 767M. Q: What are the steps in the galvanizing process? A: There are four steps: Pre-inspection – The fabricated structural steel is viewed to ensure it has, if necessary, the proper venting and draining holes, bracing, and design characteristics necessary to yield a quality galvanized coating Cleaning – Steel is immersed in a caustic solution to remove organic material such as grease and dirt, followed by dipping in an acid bath (hydrochloric or sulfuric) to remove mill scale and rust, and finally lowered into a bath of flux that promotes zinc and steel reaction and retards further oxidation of the steel. (Steel will not react with zinc unless it is perfectly clean.) Galvanizing – The clean steel is lowered into a kettle containing 850-degree Farenheit molten zinc where the steel and zinc react to form three zinc-iron alloy layers and one pure zinc layer. Final inspection – The newly galvanized steel is sight-inspected, followed by measurement of coating thickness with a magnetic thickness gauge. Q: Why is zinc used in the hot-dip galvanizing process? A: Although several metals could be used to galvanize steel, zinc has properties that make it the best choice by far. Zinc is a natural element and is essential for healthy human life. Zinc is included in vitamins, used in the prevention of sun burn, used to promote healing of wounds and minimizing diaper rash. Zinc is also 100 percent recyclable without any loss of characteristics or elemental change. Zinc also acts as an anode to steel, meaning the zinc will sacrifice itself to prevent corrosion of steel. Not every metal can do all that. Q: How does galvanizing protect steel from corrosion? A: Zinc used in the galvanizing process provides an impervious barrier between the steel substrate and corrosive elements in the atmosphere. It does not allow moisture and corrosive chlorides and sulfides to attack the steel. Zinc is more importantly anodic to steel – meaning it will corrode before the steel. Q: What is Hot-Dip Galvanizing (HDG)? A: Hot-Dip Galvanizing or HDG is a process in which zinc bonds to steel at the molecular level to produce a four-layer corrosion-resistant finish. The first three layers are zinc-iron alloy layers that are actually harder than the base steel. The fourth or top layer is pure zinc. Q: What are Hubbell Galvanizing’s terms and conditions? Hubbell Galvanizing, Fortress Fusion General Terms & Conditions 1) ACCEPTANCE a) These Terms & Conditions shall apply to all work by Hubbell Galvanizing (HG) and Fortress Fusion (FF). Acceptance of these terms shall be explicit by requesting a quote or providing a purchase order confirmation for work; or implicit by delivering goods and services rendered by HG/FF without a quote or purchase order. b) As such, Customer agrees to be bound by its terms and provisions. c) Items galvanized under these terms and conditions are to be galvanized under ASTM A123, ASTM A153, or ASTM A767. Fit, finish and appearance are governed by these specifications. Supplemental specifications ASTM A143, Safeguarding Against Embrittlement and ASTM A385, Providing High Quality Zinc Coatings, shall also apply. d) The surfaces of items to be powder coated are to be prepared following the specification ASTM D7803. e) HG makes no assertions as to the appearance and finish of galvanized items beyond the requirements of ASTM A123 and ASTM A385. f) Customer must inform HG its intent to place an additional coating of paint or powder coating (duplex coating) before, or at the time of, shipping the material to HG to be galvanized. (1) If not informed prior to the material arriving at the HG receiving dock, HG makes no representation as to the adherence of such a duplex coating to the galvanized surface. (2) If the duplex coating is not performed by FF, HG’s responsibility for the duplex coating ends once the galvanized product is loaded for transportation in HG’s yard. The Customer or outside coater will take responsibility for the additional coating. g) While HG/FF takes precautions against warping and distortion by following ASTM A384, Safeguarding Against Warping and Distortion; HG/FF cannot be responsible for warping and/or distortion due to heat conditions incidental to the galvanizing process or poor product design. h) Material to be galvanized shall be free from paint, paint stick markings, grease, lacquer, and mill coatings. Material not free from these will be subject to additional charges for cleaning. 2) PAYMENT a) Quotations are based on current zinc prices; however, quotations are subject to change due to volatility in the zinc market. b) Customers that are not approved for credit will be on Cash on Delivery (COD) terms at the time of pick-up of materials. c) Payment for Customers approved for credit will be net 10 days upon invoicing, unless otherwise specified. d) Late payments will be assessed 1.5% interest per month. e) Non-payment for work that has been invoiced allows HG/FF to stop work and/or move the Customer to Cash on Delivery (COD) status. f) All prices are F.O.B. our shipping yard. 3) STORAGE OF FINISHED MATERIALS a) Storage charges will start 2 weeks after the material has been galvanized and/or the customer has been notified the work has been completed. b) Storage charges will be $25 per day. 4) WARRANTY a) All galvanizing, or other coating, or processing by HG/FF will be performed in accordance with ASTM standards A123 and/or A153, most current versions, and is warranted to be free from defects in material or workmanship for a period of ten (10) working days after receipt of material by Customer or Customer’s consignee to whom the material is delivered. Provided that the Customer notifies HG/FF in writing of the defect within said ten (10) day period and defect is confirmed by HG/FF as being covered by this warranty following the CLAIMS procedure below. b) Owner acknowledges that the enforceability of the warranty is conditional upon the Customer being able to substantiate by documentation or otherwise that any claim under the warranty by the Customer is not a defect or failure arising out of circumstances or events related to any of those below. i) Exposure to other than the current, normal atmospheric conditions. ii) Failure, defect or damage due to the following: acts of God; stray electric currents; heat in excess of 150° F; misuse, abuse or accident, fire, explosion and vandalism; acts of third parties; damage from modification or use done by the Customer; application, exposure or contact with non-compatible coatings, metals or other substances. iii) ALL OTHER WARRANTIES ARE EXCLUDED, WHETHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED BY OPERATION OF LAW OR OTHERWISE, INCLUDING ALL IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR PURPOSE. HG/FF SHALL NOT BE LIABLE FOR INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES DIRECTLY OR INDIRECTLY ARISING OR RESULTING FROM CUSTOMER’S ACTIVITY AFTER DELIVERY (FOB HG/FF YARD). iv) CUSTOMER’S EXCLUSIVE REMEDY IS EXPRESSLY LIMITED TO HG/FF EITHER REPAIRING OR REFINISHING THE MERCHANDISE AT HG/FF DISCRETION WITHOUT CHARGE. MATERIAL MAY BE RETURNED TO HG/FF PLANT FOR REPAIR OR REFINISHING. UPON CUSTOMER’S DELIVERY TO HG/FF AT HG/FF’S PLANT, HG/FF WILL ACCEPT THE MATERIALS FOR REPAIR OR REFINISHING PROVIDED SUCH MATERIALS ARE RETURNED IN THE SAME CONDITION AS ORIGINALLY SHIPPED BY HH/FF OR BE SUBJECT TO ADDITIONAL CHARGE. CUSTOMER’S REMEDY SHALL BE EXCLUSIVE OF ANY OTHER REMEDY OTHERWISE AVAILABLE TO CUSTOMER. 5) LIMITATION OF LIABILITY a) Hubbell Galvanizing and/or Fortress Fusion Coatings (HG/FF) liability is strictly limited to the cost of goods and services provided by HG/FF for work referenced in the claim. b) Customer shall be responsible for adherence to ASTM standards A143, A384, and A385 and in no event shall HG/FF have any responsibility or liability for any warping, buckling, blistering, cracking or breaking of any of Customer’s material, whether the same occurs in the process of galvanizing or otherwise. HG/FF shall have no responsibility or liability for determining or failing to determine or for notifying or failing to notify Customer that warpage, buckling, blistering, cracking or breakage may occur with respect to any materials furnished by Customer for galvanizing. c) HG/FF makes no representation that powder coating over ungalvanized steel will protect the steel from corrosion. d) Extended warranties for both galvanized steel against corrosion (less than 5% rust for 20 years) and/or powder coated galvanized steel against fading and/chalking (5 years) is available on a project to project basis upon request. e) If the performance of the Contract by HG/FF is interrupted by any cause beyond the reasonable control of HG/FF (Force Majeure), HG/FF shall be excused from the performance of this Contract while and to the extent it is prevented from so performing by any one or more of such causes: i) labor shortages; ii) acts of God, including, but not limited to, epidemic, flood or natural disaster; iii) changes in laws, proclamations, acts, regulations; iv) explosions, accidents; v) lack of or failure of or other inability to obtain necessary transportation, supplies, fuel, power, materials, machinery, equipment or facilities, delays caused by other contractors, subcontractors or their subcontractors of any tier, or any materialmen or suppliers; f) Any such delay shall extend the time for completion of the Contract by not less than the duration of the delay; g) Additional costs incurred to complete, repair and/or replace any portion of the work due to a force majeure event shall be compensable to HG/FF, whether or not a change order for this work has been issued. h) HG/FF is not liable for any goods or services subject to modifications, handling or other damages resulting from Customer’s actions. damage or defects due to accident, abuse, misuse, shipment, improper storage after shipment, abnormal conditions of temperature, moisture, abrasion or corrosion. i) Customer agrees to indemnify HG/FF for any injuries or damages resulting from the negligence of Customer, its agents or employees. j) HG/FF has no control over the placing and handling of goods after delivery and will not therefor guarantee the finished work in which it is used nor accept any liability for damage that may result from its end use. Delivery is defined as FOB in HG/FF shipping yard. k) HG/FF is not responsible for delays beyond its reasonable control. 6) HG/FF shall not be liable for Customer lost profits, loss of construction bonus or incentives, liquidated damages, good will or any other general, special, incidental, or consequential damages suffered by Customer as a result of the goods and services rendered by HG/FF. 7) CLAIMS a) To make a claim for an alleged defect in goods or services provided, Customer must follow the claim procedure detailed in subparagraphs (i) – (iv) below. If Customer fails to follow the claim procedure detailed in subparagraphs (i) – (iv) below, then all such claims shall be null and void. i) Customer must make all claims in writing to HG/FF within five (5) days of Customer’s receipt of the goods and services rendered; and ii) Customer is to provide HG/FF, within fifteen (15) days of Customer’s receipt of the goods and services rendered, a report substantiating the alleged defect by a qualified independent third party; and iii) Customer shall permit HG/FF to test, inspect, repair or replace said goods and services within thirty (30) days after HG/FF receives the notice and report set forth in subparagraph (ii) above; and iv) If the parties hereto cannot agree upon a resolution of a property reported claim, then the dispute shall be referred to mediation. The mediator shall be assigned at random after Customer submits written request to the President of the Oneida County Bar Association that he or she assign a qualified attorney in good standing with the Oneida County Bar Association to hear the dispute. The venue for such mediation shall be in Oneida County, New York. b) Disputes i) The venue for all disputes shall be in Oneida County, New York. ii) In the event that (HG/FF) prevail in any dispute, the Customer will be liable for attorney fees, court costs and any other expenses of litigation. 8) ESCALATION a) HG/FF’s Contract Sum (including but not limited to labor, material, transportation prices) are based on current prices at the time of the Quotation. b) Any significant price increases (meaning a price increase exceeding 10% of the price at time of accepting the Quotation) in materials, transportation, labor, or other services necessary to perform the Work that occur during the period of time between the date of the Quotation and substantial completion of the Project, shall cause the Contract Sum to be equitably adjusted by an amount reasonably necessary to cover any such increase. c) Likewise, if the completion of the Work is extended more than six (6) months beyond the anticipated substantial completion for such Work, then the hourly manufacturing rate shall also be equitably adjusted. 9) ARCHITECTURALLY EXPOSED STRUCTURAL STEEL (AESS). a) These terms and conditions specifically exclude meeting the aesthetic requirements expected of Architecturally Exposed Structural Steel (AESS). b) AESS is defined as steel exposed to regular view by pedestrians or occupants of a building that is expected to meet additional aesthetic and finish requirements beyond the fit, finish and appearance requirements of ASTM A123, ASTM A153, and ASTM A767. c) HG/FF is not liable for an AESS finish if HG/FF is not informed of such a desire before the job has been coated OR if HG/FF does not quote the job to AESS specifications. As such, HG/FF does not assume any liability for finish and appearance beyond that required of ASTM A123, ASTM A153, and ASTM A767. d) Any work necessary to meet Customer or End User requests to meet AESS fit, finish and appearance requirements not identified prior to any work performed by HG/FF shall be: i) Subject to additional charges to the Customer at standard shop rates. ii) Subject to a separate Addendum to these General Terms and Conditions laying out the requirements of AESS work to be performed by HG/FF. iii) However, HG/FF makes no representation that the Customer and/or End Users expectations will be met if HG/FF is not informed of those expectations before or informed after the work has been performed by HG/FF. e) Special terms and conditions for AESS work that is specified as such shall be additionally subject to Architecturally Exposed Structural Steel (AESS) Addendum. Q: We are bidding an AESS job. (Special terms for AESS apply) Where can we find information? A: Call or email Hubbell Galvanizing’s office to discuss, at (315)736-8311, Info@whyrust.com. Architecturally Exposed Structural Steel (AESS) Addendum 1. The General Terms and Conditions specifically exclude meeting the aesthetic requirements expected of Architecturally Exposed Structural Steel (AESS). The default condition for any work to be galvanized and/or powder coated is that it is NOT categorized as AESS unless specifically designated as such by the Customer and covered by this Addendum. 2. The AISC Code of Standard Practice for buildings and Bridges, Section 10 Covers AESS, when members are specifically designated as architecturally exposed structural steel or AESS in the contract documents and will apply to AESS work when so designated. 3. Communication among HG/FF, the Customer, and the End User is essential throughout the process from the request for quote, issuance of a Purchase Order Confirmation, through the galvanizing process, packaging, and inspection. i) Before a quotation is delivered, or a purchase order confirmation is received by HG/FF, a pre-bid and/or a pre-job meeting should be held between HG/FF, the Customer, and the End User to determine AESS requirements. ii) Certain requirements of the Customer/End User may be unattainable in the galvanizing process. Therefore there should be a discussion with HG/FF before progressing the project. iii) HG cannot guarantee uniform appearance of galvanized items due to a variety of factors identified in ASTM A385, Providing High Quality Zinc Coatings. It is highly recommended that if uniform appearance and finish is desired, the item be powder coated to provide such an appearance and finish. iv) It is highly recommended that drawings be provided for review prior to fabrication to enable HG/FF to make recommendations on factors such as: (1) Optimal size & location of vents and drains (2) Elimination or reduction of overlapping surfaces to minimize fluid entrapment/weeping or implement seal welding in such areas. (3) Reducing susceptibility for warping/distortion 4. Attaining AESS requirement will result in additional charges to accommodate the additional time and material required to meet Customer and/or End User requirements. These will be determined based on standard shop rates. These may include, but are not limited to the following: i) Additional time coordinating with the Customer and/or End User on AESS requirements. ii) Additional time running AESS material to meet finish and/or appearance requirements (smaller runs, air cooling, hand finishing, etc.). iii) Additional work required to meet both ASTM A385 and AESS requirements to the Category specified (vents and drains, etc.). iv) Additional finishing to meet the AESS Category specified. v) Additional handling, packaging, and storage requirements. 5. AESS is defined as steel exposed to regular view by pedestrians or occupants of a building that is expected to meet additional aesthetic and finish requirements meeting the requirements below. i) The American Iron and Steel Council (AISC), Architecturally Exposed Structural Steel ( https://www.aisc.org/why-steel/architecturally-exposed-structural-steel/). Category 1, Basic Elements, shall be the default category unless another category is specified. If Category C, Custom Elements, is specified, the specific elements to be considered shall also be identified. If specific elements are not identified, Category 1 elements shall apply. (1) Supplementally, The National Ornamental & Miscellaneous Metals Association (NOMMA): Finishing Guidelines may apply to weld finish requirements. Finish 2 will be the default finish if no finish is specified. (https://cdn.ymaws.com/www.nomma.org/resource/resmgr/technical/joint_finishes-guide.pdf). ii) If no guideline is specified, AISC, AESS Category 1, Basic Elements, shall apply. iii) HG/FF is responsible only for the coating of steel. Customer is responsible for meeting fabrication requirements for the AESS Category specified 6. HG/FF is not liable for an AESS finish if HG/FF is not informed of such a desire until after the job has been coated. As such, HG/FF does not assume any liability for fit, finish, and appearance beyond that required of ASTM A123, ASTM A153, and ASTM A767. 7. Any additional work performed to meet Customer’s or End User’s expectations regarding AESS will be subject to additional charges at HG/FF standard shop rates 8. However, should AESS be determined to be applicable to the services provided, the following shall apply: i) AESS work shall be subject to additional charges to cover the costs of any and all additional work required at HG/FF standard shop rates. ii) Should AESS be determined to be applicable to the services provided, the following shall apply: (1) HG/FF makes no representation that the Customer and/or End Users expectations will be met if HG/FF is informed of those expectations after the work has been performed by HG/FF. (2) Nevertheless, AESS work shall be subject to additional charges to cover the costs of additional work performed. (3) This additional charge shall be applied regardless of whether the Customer or End User or End User’s agents declares the work to be AESS prior to the request for quotation or purchase order confirmation. (4) HG/FF shall be the arbiter of whether any requested additional finish work (either by the Customer or End User) shall be determined to be AESS. (5) HG/FF assumes no liability for damage to AESS items after the items have been loaded to be transported to the job site or staging area. (6) Should trucking accommodations be arranged by HG/FF, Customer assumes responsibility for damage after the items are loaded and secured in HG/FF yard. 9. Should AESS be declared prior to the request for quotation or purchase order confirmation, or after galvanizing or powder coating, as the case may be, guidelines listed in Section 2, above, shall apply. 10. Agreement shall be obtained between HG/FF, the Customer, and the End User or their agents on the Category of AESS to be obtained, and if Category C, Custom Elements, is selected, which elements are applicable. 11. Operational considerations may include: i) Mill Certifications will be required to determine the applicability of AESS appearance for HDG items. (Reactive steel will have an appearance duller than non-reactive steel. Reactive steel could increase zinc pickup and/or result in a rough or dull appearance. Reactive steel may result in excessive coating thickness and may be a cause of delamination of the zinc coating.) ii) Materials must be able to be galvanized in a single dip. iii) Acceptable appearance of HSS seams, welds, mill markings iv) Wet Storage Stain considerations. v) Materials used for touch-up and repair at HG/FF and/or the jobsite/staging area. (Touch up and repair methods may not match the final zinc patina which is matte gray and may stand out as clearly touched up; or if matched to the final patina will stand out as dull against a shiny area.)